I’ve only encountered box-and-whisker plots in stats or other quant classes that describe them but I’ve rarely seen them used outside of that. I’ve seen histograms used more frequently and I would say they are a better, if not the best, way to represent distribution data because you can quickly and easily interpret them even if you’re not familiar with histograms in general. Box-and-whisker plots on the other hand require remembering what each aspect means and so if you are not used to interpreting them, it can be difficult to understand what they are trying to show.
I also have mostly seen box-and-whisker plots in my coursework and in certain situations where audiences had more of a statistical background. I have seen histograms more frequently, particularly in publicly facing documents and dashboards as they are much easier to interpret at a glance. I think each of them can be easy to understand if presented with clear labelling and context.