2.3 DNA, Heredity, and Drug Resistance

Learning Outcomes

After completing this module, the student will be able to:

  • Explain how DNA encodes genetic information and the role of messenger RNA and transfer RNA.
  • Explain how DNA directs protein synthesis and the roles of DNA and proteins in regulating cell function.
  • Demonstrate how to predict the possible genotypes that could occur in an offspring, provided one knows the genotype of the two parents.
  • Explain what a mutation is and give examples of how it might occur.
  • Define the following terms:
    • Transcription and translation
    • Allele
    • Genotype
    • Phenotype
    • Homozygous vs. heterozygous
    • Dominant, recessive, and co-dominant alleles

Developed by Wayne W. LaMorte, MD, PhD, MPH, Assistant Dean for Education, Boston University School of Public Health.